Thursday, May 26, 2016

The Guggenheim Museum Bilbao presents Windows on the City: The School of Paris, 1900 –1945



From April 22 to October 23, 2016, t he Guggenheim Museum Bilbao presents Windows on the City: The  School of Paris, 1900  –1945,  an exhibition  of more than 50 masterpieces from the collection of the Solomon  R. Guggenheim Museum in New York. This exhibition is the first since the renewal of the management  agreement with the Guggenheim Foundation, signed in December 2014 and valid for 20 years. The  agreement provides for a range of new initiatives that will broaden the partnership and emphasizes the Solomon R. Guggenheim  Museum’s commitment to present  an exhibition of key, iconic works from its collection every two years  at the Guggenheim Museum Bilbao.   

Windows on the City: The School of Paris, 1900  –1945  includes some of the most influential paintings and  sculptures of the last century, created by artists such as Constantin Brancusi, Georges Braque, Robert  Delaunay, Amedeo Modigliani, and Pablo Picasso.  In the early twentieth century, Paris was the capital of the avant-garde. Artists from around the world  settled in the City of Light, where they created new forms of art and literature and responded to the rapid  economic, social, and technological developments that were fundamentally transforming city  life.  It was in Paris that Picasso and Braque radically overturned the conventions of painting, Delaunay composed  harmonious  visions of color, Kandinsky pursued new directions in abstraction, and Brancusi reimagined how sculptures could be present in space. 

The title of the exhibition, which refers  to a series by Delaunay,  illustrates  how the modern city became a backdrop and  an inspiration for artistic production. Spanning from the first years of the twentieth century through World War II , the exhibition charts the key movements of modernism  —from Cubism to Orphism to Surrealism—and the artists who came to be known  as the École de Paris  (School of Paris). 

Among the masterpieces featured are 



Picasso’s Le Moulin de la  Galette (1900,


Modigliani’s Nude (1917),  


and Marc Chagall’s Green  Violinist (1923  –24).

Though diverse, the artistic visions represented in this exhibition manifest a common impulse to eschew  conservative  aesthetics and transform perceptions of everyday life in a modern city.  The rise of Fascism and the occupation  of France  during  World War  II ultimately ended the School of Paris, as the artists who had once sought political, spiritual, and creative refuge in the city were forced to leave.  

A tour through the exhibition

Cubism  was  one of the most important artistic innovations that emerged in Paris  in the  first  half of the  twentieth  century. This  revolutionary approach to painting, developed by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque between 1907 and 1914, challenged  the conventions of visual art and the very nature of representation.  This gallery includes key works that exemplify Analytic Cubism, an intellectual style in which  form and space are “broken  down  ;”  




Braque’s  Piano and Mandola (1909–10)  




 and Picasso’s Bottles and Glasses (1911–12)  

feature many characteristics of this approach, including a muted palette. While  still  recognizable in these paintings, object are fractured into multiple planes, as is the  background.  

In the years leading up to and following World War  I, artists used the visual vocabulary of Cubism to achieve various ends, such as exploring pure abstraction and  modern science, and  infusing contemporary  experience with the  spirituality of folk traditions.





Robert Delaunay
Red Eiffel Tower (La tour rouge), 1911–12
Oil on canvas
125 x 90.3 cm
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, Solomon R. Guggenheim Founding Collection, 46.1036




Robert Delaunay
Circular Forms (Formes circulaires), 1930
Oil on canvas
128.9 x 194.9 cm
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, Solomon R. Guggenheim Founding Collection, 49.1184


Robert Delaunay’s depictions of Parisian life and landmarks,  are exemplified in works such as Red Eiffel Tower (1911-  12), while his later abstract painting, Circular Forms (1930)  showcases his interest in contemporary developments in optics.

In this gallery, visitors can also observe Green Violinist (1923) (above) by Russian  artist  Marc Chagall, who produced this painting upon his return to Paris after having spent much of World War  I in his home  country. The work merges the  Cubist fragmentation of  space with colorful imagery inspired by Russian and  Jewish folklore, conveying the artist’s nostalgia for the religious festivals and popular celebrations of his youth.  

The work of Constantin Brancusi, who traveled from his native Romania to settle in Paris  in 1904, rejects the theatrical, narrative impulse of much nineteenth century sculpture in favor of radically simplified,  abstract forms and the unadorned presentation of wood, metal, and other  materials.  Brancusi  never identified the specific sources or meanings of his works, but  The Sorceress (1916–24) might relate to a supernatural figure from  Romanian legends.  

Gallery  307  

After the First World War, Paris once again became a  center of  cultural  production. During that time, the  adherents of Surrealism—a movement inaugurated  with André Breton’s 1924  manifesto  —were  also  counted  as part of the School of Paris. Drawing on the theories of Sigmund Freud, these writers and artists  attempted  to  articulate and  give form to repressed desires, dream imagery, and other  elements of the  unconscious. Some, like Yves Tanguy  juxtaposed  incongruous images and objects;  others, like Jean Arp and Joan Miró, experimented with automatism, creating drawings without a premeditated composition or subject  in order to bypass the conscious mind. Infl  uenced by Arp and Miró, American  sculptor Alexander  Calder created a language of  movement  and balance with his famous mobiles and wire sculptures including Romulus and Remus  (1928).  

Vasily Kandinsky, who made significant advances in abstract painting while living in Germany and Russia during the 1910s and ‘20s, settled in  Paris in 1934. In his works from this period, including  




Yellow Painting (1938) and  



Around the Circle (1940),

Kandinsky combines  free-playing  forms  similar to those from his  earliest  abstractions  with the more geometric and biomorphic shapes he  developed while teaching at the Bauhaus.  

Didaktika  

The exhibition includes an educational area  that  aims to transport visitors to turn-of-the -century Paris through a “time tunnel” that provides a historical, political, economic, and social context of the time. An  icon  of modernity and the avant -garde, Paris is, in a way, a co-star of the exhibition. Focusing  on four  major  expositions  that took place in Paris  during the first half of the twentieth century   the 1900  Universal Exposition, the 1925  International Exposition of Modern Industrial and Decorative Arts,  the  1931 International Colonial  Exhibition, and the 1937  International Exposition  of Art and Technology in  Modern Life —the contents of the Didaktika are presented through texts, large photomurals, videos, and audio recordings that evoke the vibrancy  of  the City of Light.  



Georges Braque
Violin and Palette (Violon et palette), September 1, 1909Oil on canvas
91.7 x 42.8 cm
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, 54.1412 © VEGAP, Bilbao, 2016 





Marc Chagall
The Soldier Drinks (Le soldat boit), 1911–12
Oil on canvas
109.2 x 94.6 cm
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, Solomon R. Guggenheim Founding Collection, 49.1211

© VEGAP, Bilbao, 2016




Juan Gris
Newspaper and Fruit Dish (Journal et compotier), March 1916
Oil on canvas
46 x 37.8 cm
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, By gift, Estate of Katherine S. Dreier, 53.1341




Vasily Kandinsky
Around the Circle (Autour du cercle), May–August 1940
Oil and enamel on canvas
96.8 x 146 cm
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, Solomon R. Guggenheim Founding Collection, 49.1222

© VEGAP, Bilbao, 2016



Fernand Léger
Nude Model in the Studio (Le modèle nu dans l'atelier), 1912–13
Oil on burlap
128.6 x 95.9 cm
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, Solomon R. Guggenheim Founding Collection, 49.1193

© VEGAP, Bilbao, 2016



Joan Miró
Landscape (The Hare) (Paysage [Le lièvre]), autumn 1927 Oil on canvas
129.6 x 194.6 cm
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, 57.1459

© 2016 Successió Miró / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York / ADAGP, Paris



Amedeo Modigliani
Nude (Nu), 1917
Oil on canvas
73 x 116.7 cm
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, Solomon R. Guggenheim Founding Collection, By gift, 41.535




Piet Mondrian
Still Life with Gingerpot II (Stilleven met gemberpot II), 1911–12 Oil on canvas
91.5 x 120 cm
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, L294.76

© 2007 Mondrian / Holtzman Trust



Pablo Picasso
Le Moulin de la Galette, autumn 1900
Oil on canvas
88.2 x 115.5 cm
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York,
Thannhauser Collection, Gift, Justin K. Thannhauser, 78.2514.34 © Sucesión Pablo Picasso. VEGAP, Bilbao, 2016




Pablo Picasso
Carafe, Jug and Fruit Bowl (Carafon, pot et compotier), summer 1909
Oil on canvas
71.8 x 64.6 cm
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, Solomon R. Guggenheim Founding Collection,

By gift, 37.536
© Sucesión Pablo Picasso. VEGAP, Bilbao, 2016




Pablo Picasso
Mandolin and Guitar (Mandoline et guitare), 1924
Oil with sand on canvas
140.7 x 200.3 cm
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York 53.1358 © Sucesión Pablo Picasso. VEGAP, Bilbao, 2016





Yves Tanguy
There, Motion Has Not Yet Ceased (Là ne finit pas encore le mouvement), 1945 Oil on canvas
71.1 x 55.5 cm
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, Bequest, Richard S. Zeisler, 2007.47 © 2016 Estate of Yves Tanguy / VEGAP, Bilbao, 2016

Tuesday, May 24, 2016

Swann Galleries June 9, auction of American Art: Sheeler, Dove, Gifford, Wiggins

On Thursday, June 9, Swann Galleries will hold an auction of American Art featuring works of early American modernism and a recently discovered Hudson River School painting.



             Headlining the sale is New York #3–Study, a 1950 gouache and pencil on paper by American modernist painter and photographer Charles Sheeler. The painting is characteristic of Sheeler’s work around 1950, which reduced objects and buildings to colorful, planar forms. New York #3–Study depicts an abstracted Rockefeller Center, with attention paid to the shadows on 30 Rockefeller Center and the International Building; it is estimated at $100,000 to $150,000.  



Patent Cereals Company, Geneva, New York, a watercolor, circa 1938, by Sheeler’s fellow modernist Arthur Dove, is also part of the sale. It is estimated at $30,000 to $50,000.



             Another highlight is a recently discovered canvas by second-generation Hudson River School painter Sanford Robinson Gifford, Study of the Parthenon, oil on canvas, 1869. Gifford painted the Athenian temple both en plein air and after sketches he made during an 1869 visit to Greece. The study relates to a larger painting of the same subject,  



Ruins of the Parthenon, which resides in the collection of the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C. Study of the Parthenon is estimated at $20,000 to $30,000.

             Also included is Mexican painter and illustrator Miguel Covarrubias’s At Leroy’s, circa 1924.  This watercolor, pen and ink piece went on to be illustrated as plate 42 in Covarrubias's 1927 book Negro Drawings, depicting his perceptions of the Harlem Renaissance. A black and white study for this piece, titled The Last Jump, is in the collection of the Whitney Museum of American Art, and was on view in America is Hard to See, the inaugural exhibition at the museum’s new building. At Leroy’s is estimated at $30,000 to $50,000.

             The sale also includes a run of works by New York artist Guy C. Wiggins. Known for his paintings depicting snowy street scenes in New York, the Wiggins works in this auction include  




Chicago Blizzard, oil on canvas, 1920s ($40,000 to $60,000);  



Fifth Avenue Storm, oil on canvas board ($30,000 to $50,000);


and Winter Along Central Park, oil on canvas, 1930s ($30,000 to $50,000); among others.


Other paintings in the sale featuring the city that never sleeps include two works by John Marin:



City Movement, New York, watercolor, 1925 ($15,000 to $20,000);



and Sunset, Manhattan, colored pencil and pencil ($8,000 to $12,000).

London Calling: Bacon, Freud, Kossoff , Andrews, Auerbach, and Kitaj

J. Paul Getty Museum 
July 26 to November 13, 2016

From  the 1940s  through  the  1980s, a prominent group of London-based artists developed new styles and approaches to depicting the human figure and  the landscape. These painters resisted  the abstraction, minimalism, and conceptualism that dominated contemporary art at the time, instead focusing on depicting  contemporary life  through  innovative figurative works.  

On view at the J. Paul Getty Museum from  July 26 to November 13, 2016,  London  Calling: Bacon, Freud, Kossoff, Andrews,  Auerbach, and Kitaj  represents  the first  major American museum exhibition to  explore  the leaders of this movement, often called the “School of London,” as central to a richer and  ore complex understanding of 20th  century  painting . 

The exhibition includes 80 paintings, drawings , and prints  by Francis  Bacon, Lucian Freud, Leon Kossoff, Michael Andrews, Frank Auerbach, and R.B. Kitaj.  

 
Leigh Bowery, 1991. Lucian Freud (British, born Germany, 1922 - 2011). Oil on canvas. © Lucian Freud Archive / Bridgeman Copyright Service. Tate: Presented anonymously 1994. Repro Credit: Photo © Tate, London 2016.
 


“The majority of paintings and drawing s in the Getty Museum’s collection  are fundamentally concerned with the rendition of the human figure and landscape up to 1900,” says  Timothy  Potts, director of the  J. Paul  Getty Museum and one of the exhibition curators.  “This  significant  exhibition shows an important part of  ‘what happened next,’  highlighting an  innovative group of figurative artists at a time  when abstraction dominated  avant -garde discourse  in the U.S. and much of Europe. Working with our partners at Tate in London, we have brought together a fabulous  group of pictures that  exemplify the radical approaches to figure and landscape pioneered by this influential coterie of artists, illuminating their crucial place in modern art history.”

London Calling  is a collaboration between Tate and the J. Paul Getty Museum  and is curated by Julian Brooks, curator of Drawings at the  Getty Museum, Timothy Potts, and Elena Crippa, curator, Modern and Contemporary British Art at Tate.  

Drawn largely from the unrivaled holdings of Tate, the exhibition  has been enriched by a number of loans from other museums and private collectors.

 “By pursuing painting as an activity that records and revitalizes an intense sensory experience,  these artists  rendered  the frailty and vitality of the human condition, tr anslating life into art  and reinventing the way in which their surroundings could be represented,” said Brooks. “The  ‘School of London ’ artists  doggedly pursued forms of figurative painting at a time when it was  considered outmoded.  In recent decades the work of these artists has rightly been reassessed.  It is timely to look at them as a group and deepen our appreciation of their contribution.” 

Francis Bacon (1909 –1992) 

Francis Bacon was born in Dublin in 1909 to English  parents. After traveling to Germany and France he  settled in London. He received guidance from an  older friend, the Australian artist Roy de Maistre, but was otherwise largely self -taught. In 1945, the showing of a number of his paintings at London’s  Lefevre Gallery established his critical reputation,  and he became central to an artistic milieu in Soho  that included Lucian Freud and Michael Andrews.  

 From the mid -1940s, he began taking  as a starting  point for his work reproductions of paintings,  sculpture, photographs, and film stills, mostly relating to the imagery of angst that resonated with  both historical and personal circumstances. From 1962 he expanded the range of his photographic  sources by commissioning particular shots of models, mostly friends and lovers.  For example, 



Portrait of Isabel Rawsthorne, 1966 Francis Bacon (British, born Ireland, 1909 -  1992) Oil on canvas  © The Estate of Francis Bacon. All rights reserved.  / DACS, London / ARS, NY 2016 . Tate: Purchased  1966.  Photo© Tate, London 2016 .   

 Portrait of  Isabel Rawsthorne,  1966 , on view in the exhibition, was  based on a photo of his friend and  regular subject, the artist  Isabel Rawsthorne (1912–1992). 


A highlight of the exhibition,  



 Triptych — August 1972   

forms part of a series of so-called “Black  Triptychs,” which followed the suicide of Bacon’s longtime lover, George Dyer, in 1971. In the  composition,  Dyer appears on the left and Bacon himself is on the right. The image on the central panel is derived from a photograph of wrestlers by Eadweard Muybridge.



 Figure with Meat, 1954. © 2016 Estate of Francis Bacon. All rights reserved. / ARS, New York / DACS, London
Bacon’s well-known  Figure with Meat, 1954 

belongs to a large series of works based on  reproductions of 



Diego Velázquez’s Portrait of Pope Innocent X

In this version, Bacon depicts  the Pope between two halves of a hanging animal carcass, a motif relating to the first portrait of Bacon taken by the photographer John Deakin, in1952, in which the painter  is stripped to the waist and holds a split carcass. In establishing a connection between the raw, butchered meat and human flesh, Bacon expresses a sense of emotional turmoil and reminds the viewer of the vulnerability of the human body.   

Catalogue


 

Offering a fresh account of developments that have since characterized postwar British painting, this catalogue focuses on Michael Andrews, Frank Auerbach, Francis Bacon, Lucian Freud, R. B. Kitaj, and Leon Kossoff— artists who worked in close proximity as they were developing new forms of realism. If for many years their efforts seemed to clash with dominant tendencies, reassessment in recent decades has afforded their work a central position in a richer and more complex understanding of postwar British art and culture.

Rigorous and gorgeously illustrated, the essays reflect on the parallel yet diverse trajectories of these artists, their friendships and mutual admiration, and the divergence of their practice from the discourse of high modernism. The authors seek to dispel the notion of their work as a uniquely British endeavor by highlighting the artists’ international outlook and ongoing dialogue with contemporary European and American painters as well as masters from previous generations.
 



Monday, May 23, 2016

Francis Bacon: Invisible Rooms



Tate Liverpool
18 May – 18 September 2016

Staatsgalerie Stuttgart (7 October 2016 – 8 January 2017)


Tate Liverpool presents the largest exhibition ever staged in the north of England of one of Britain’s greatest modern painters. Francis Bacon: Invisible Rooms will be the first dedicated exhibition to survey an underexplored yet significant element of Bacon’s work.

Francis Bacon (1909 – 1992), the Irish-born British figurative artist, is considered a major figure of 20th-century art. Many of his iconic works feature an architectural, ghost-like framing device around his subjects. Francis Bacon: Invisible Rooms will feature approximately 30 paintings alongside a group of rarely seen drawings and documents including some of Bacon’s most powerful works, surveying the variety of Bacon’s compositions united by this common motif.

An element introduced by the artist in the 1930s, Bacon used a barely visible cubic or elliptic cage around the figures depicted to create his dramatic compositions. It is these imaginary chambers that emphasise the isolation of the represented figures and bring attention to their psychological condition; the act of placing the sitters in ‘invisible rooms’ guides the focus of attention towards the complex human emotions that are felt but can’t be seen.

Francis Bacon: Invisible Rooms traces the development of this architectural structure throughout his career; from the first indications of room-spaces in early works including 

 

Francis Bacon, Crucifixion 1933
© The Estate of Francis Bacon. All rights reserved. DACS 2016. Image courtesy Murderme Collection. Photo: Prudence Cuming Associates Ltd

Crucifixion 1933 (Murderme) 

 

Francis Bacon, 1909-1992
Three Studies for Figures at the Base of a Crucifixion c.1944
Oil paint on 3 boards
Each: 940 x 737 mm
© Tate

and Three Studies for Figures at the Base of a Crucifixion c. 1944 (Tate); 

the 1950s, including Man in Blue IV 1954 (mumok, Austria) 

 Francis Bacon, Chimpanzee, 1955, Staatsgalerie Stuttgart © The Estate of Francis Bacon. All rights reserved/VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn 2015

and Chimpanzee 1955 (Staatsgalerie Stuttgart); 


through to the 1980s, Untitled (Kneeling Figure) c. 1982 (Private Collection).

The exhibition demonstrates the ongoing development of the motif, which Bacon tested in different ways from its inception. A period of experimentation on paper in the late 1950s and early 1960s gave way to a greater spatial complexity in the late 1960s, 70s and 80s, where the cubic cages were transformed into theatrical spaces, demonstrated in 1967’s  

 

Triptych Inspired by T.S. Eliot’s ‘Sweeney Agonistes’ (Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden).

Taking inspiration from a seminal essay by French philosopher Gilles Deleuze, Francis Bacon: The Logic of Sensation 1981, the exhibition highlights the role of Bacon’s approach to space, which Deleuze interpreted as one of the defining forces of his work.

Francis Bacon: Invisible Rooms is curated by Kasia Redzisz, Senior Curator and Lauren Barnes, Assistant Curator, Tate Liverpool with Ina Conzen, Curator and Deputy Director, Staatsgalerie Stuttgart. Organised by Tate Liverpool in collaboration with Staatsgalerie Stuttgart. 

 

 
Francis Bacon, From Muybridge ‘The human Figure in Motion: Woman Emptying a Bowl of Water/Paralytic Child Walking on All Fours’ 1965
Collection Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam © The Estate of Francis Bacon. All rights reserved. DACS 2016.



Francis Bacon, 1909-1992
Study for the Nurse from the Battleship Potemkin 1957
Oil paint on canvas
1980 x 1420 mm
© Estate of Francis Bacon. All Rights Reserved, DACS 2016. © Städel Museum - U. Edelmann – ARTOTHEK


Three Figures and Portrait 1975
Oil paint and pastel on canvas
1981 x 1473 mm
© The Estate of Francis Bacon. All rights reserved. DACS 2016. Image courtesy Tate. 



Francis Bacon, 1909-1992
Study for Portrait on Folding Bed 1963
Oil paint on canvas
1981 x 1473 mm
© Estate of Francis Bacon


Francis Bacon, 1909-1992
Seated Figure 1961
Oil paint on canvas
1651 x 1422 mm
© Estate of Francis Bacon



Francis Bacon, 1909-1992
Study for a Portrait 1952
Oil paint and sand on canvas
661 x 561 x 18 mm
© Estate of Francis Bacon. All Rights Reserved, DACS 2016

 

Electric Paris - Bruce Museum


May 14, 2016 - September 4, 2016


Paris had been known as the City of Light long before the widespread use of gaslight and electricity.  The name arose during the Enlightenment, when philosophers made Paris a center of ideas and of metaphorical illumination.  By the mid-nineteenth century, the epithet became associated with the city’s adoption of artificial lighting: in the 1840s and 1850s, gas lamps were first installed, while electric versions began to proliferate by the end of the 1870s.  Even as rivals, including Berlin, London, New York, and Chicago, increased the quantity of light in their rapidly electrified cities, Paris managed to maintain its reputation because of the beauty of its illuminations.  Light remained and remains to this day a key signature of the French capital. 



Alfred Maurer (American, 1868-1932) Nocturne, Paris, n.d.
Oil on board, 10 1/4 x 13 3/4 in.
Avery Galleries, Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania
Courtesy of Avery Galleries



Jean-Louis Forain (French, 1852-1931)
Dancer in Her Dressing Room, c. 1890
Oil on panel, 10 1/2 x 13 3/16 in.
Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, Williamstown, MA, 1955.738
Image © Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, Williamstown, MA (photo by Michael Agee)




Alexandre Lunois (French, 1863-1916)
Le Magasin de Nouveautés (L’Exposition du “Bon Marché”), 1903
Color lithograph on wove paper, image: 18 1/8 x 21 1/16 in.
Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, Williamstown, MA, 1990.14
Image © Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, Williamstown, MA (photo by Michael Agee)


John Singer Sargent (American, 1856-1925)
In the Luxembourg Gardens, 1879
Oil on canvas, 25 7/8 x 36 3/8 in.
Philadelphia Museum of Art: John G. Johnson Collection, 1917, Cat. 1080
Courtesy of the Philadelphia Museum of Art


Organized thematically into four sections––Nocturnes, Lamplit Interiors, Street Light, In and Out of the Spotlight––Electric Paris explores the ways in which artists responded to older oil and gas lamps and the newer electric lighting that began to supplant them around the turn of the twentieth century.  While artificially illuminated public spaces and private interiors appear frequently in works of art and popular depictions of contemporary life during this period, the different types of lighting that animate such spaces––and their distinctive visual properties––have not been considered in detail. 
Electric Paris will feature approximately 50 works––paintings, prints, photographs, and drawings––by such artists as Edgar Degas, Mary Cassatt, Pierre Bonnard, Édouard Vuillard, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Charles Marville, Jean Béraud, James Tissot, Childe Hassam, Charles Courtney Curran, Alfred Maurer, and Maurice Prendergast, among others.  


Theodore Earl Butler (American, 1860 - 1936 ) Place de Rome at Night,  1905 Oil on canvas ,  23 1/2 x  28 3/4 in. Terra Foundation for American Art, Daniel J. Terra Collection Photography ©Terra Foundation for American Art, Chicago 



Willard Metcalf (American, 1858 - 1925 ) Au Café,  1888 Oil on panel,  19 11/16 x  12 1/4 in. Terra Foundation for American Art,  Daniel J. Terra Collection, 1992.10 Photography ©Terra Foundation  for American Art, Chicago  
 
Electric Paris at the Bruce Museum is curated by Margarita Karasoulas; it is an expanded version of an exhibition first organized by the Clark Art Institute in 2013, curated by S. Hollis Clayson, who is exhibition advisor to this exhibition.